war

Europe’s Big Bang: How Gunpowder Transformed the Medieval World

Europe’s Big Bang: How Gunpowder Transformed the Medieval World

Philip the Bold, duke of Burgundy, was a warrior’s warrior. Hawk-nosed, ambitious, and brash, Philip had been a soldier since childhood. He was still a smooth-faced boy of 14 when he fought alongside his father, King John II of France, in the battle of Poitiers in 1356. Like King

Paul Lockhart
Paul Lockhart
16 min read
History
The Iraq War Was Not About Oil

The Iraq War Was Not About Oil

Why did the U.S.-led coalition attack Iraq in 2003? Sixteen years after George W. Bush’s “Mission Accomplished” speech, the answer seems obvious to some: oil of course! When war was waged, this was the widespread view in Jordan (71 percent), Morocco (63 percent), Pakistan (54 percent), Turkey

Tal Tyagi
Tal Tyagi
9 min read
foreign policy