Recommended, Social Science

Why White Privilege is Wrong—Part 2

Many people enjoy invoking race as an explanation for all sorts of things. It is a shared pastime for both the far-left and the far-right. The media expend vast sums of money and effort to ensure we don’t escape discussions about race as something that is or should be important. This vocal minority of political extremists and news broadcasters has directed our attention away from more powerful causal explanations that underlie group outcomes. Perverse incentives for these two groups have made race a more a prominent feature of our lives.

As a consequence, white privilege has become the favoured explanation for differences in group outcomes among many educated people. But unintentional or otherwise, by attributing success to white privilege, affluent individuals who invoke this mistaken idea thwart the ambitions of those who are seeking success but who are also lacking in privilege. If we want to not only understand differences in group outcomes but also mend them, then we need a more robust and less ideological framework.

The Pitfalls of One-Thing-ism  

The presumption that social groups should be proportionally represented in all activities and institutions is a fallacy that goes against key statistical laws. In nature, there is nothing resembling representatively equal outcomes. Grossly unequal distributions of outcomes are the rule, not the exception.

Here are a few examples. More than 80 percent of the doughnut shops in California are owned by people of Cambodian ancestry. During the 1960s, although the Chinese minority in Malaysia was only 36 percent of the population, they comprised between 80 and 90 percent of all university students in medicine, science, and engineering. In the early twentieth century, Scots made four-fifths of the world’s sugar-processing machinery. In 1937, 91 percent of all grocers’ licenses in Vancouver, Canada, were held by people of Japanese ancestry.

Group disparities often prompt explanations for why these differences exist. Impersonal factors such as crop failures, birth order, geographic settings, technological advances, and demographic differences are all potential explanations. But as economist Thomas Sowell points out, these “morally neutral factors seem to attract far less attention than other causal factors which stir moral outrage.” If something is salient (attention-seizing), then it must be causal. And indeed, discrimination, something we are quick to lock our attention onto, unfailingly serves as a popular explanation for differences in group outcomes.

For the proponents of white privilege, differential group outcomes are a product of nefarious interventionism, past and present. Were it not for those meddling racists, equal outcomes would exist. However, disparities do not imply discrimination. This, in fact, is a classic fallacy known as “affirming the consequent.” Plainly, it means to mistakenly attribute an outcome to a previous event, even though such an outcome could be the result of many other events. Take the true conditional statement, “If it is raining, then the grass is wet.” Upon seeing wet grass, you infer that it is raining. This is an error as the grass could be wet for a number of other reasons. Now take the statement, “If discrimination exists, then differences in outcomes will arise.” This, again, is a true conditional statement. But if differences in outcomes arise, that does not imply that discrimination exists. We easily fall into this trap. All the more when salient factors like race or other physical features are involved.

Still, this does not rule out discrimination as one possible explanation for group outcomes. It is one of many possibilities, each of which must be validated by the evidence. Our emotional responses tell us nothing about the causal weight of different factors.

The problem with white privilege is its mono-causal disposition (“one-thing-ism”). It assumes that discrimination, and only discrimination, can neatly explain the intricacies of group outcomes. This, of course, flies in the face of social science research where many factors, together, best explain a complicated phenomenon.

For instance, Robert Plomin, in his book Blueprint, examines differences in academic achievement among boys and girls. Less than 1 percent of academic achievement can be explained by sex. Put differently, knowing whether a child is a boy or a girl tells you virtually nothing about their grades. But sex is salient, and therefore easy to invoke when people observe differences in outcomes.

Even obvious factors, when taken together, don’t fully explain outcomes. What predicts how well someone does in college? Some might say secondary school grades or SAT scores. Others might say social class is what matters most. However, research indicates that socioeconomic status, high school grades, and standardized test scores combined only account for about 41 percent of the differences in college grades. Granted, 41 percent is a lot by social science standards. But none of these factors come close to fully explaining the differences in academic achievement among college students.

Nevertheless, complex outcomes are best explained by a confluence of factors. In the case of white privilege, there are a number of variables which, when taken together, better explain differences in group outcomes. Here, we share four potential factors: geographic determinism, personal responsibility, family structure, and culture.

Four Explanations for Group Outcomes

In a study of American intergenerational mobility, Harvard’s Raj Chetty made a fascinating discovery: “intergenerational mobility varies substantially across areas within the U.S.” In other words, your odds of doing better than your parents depends in part on where you live. This is what AEI’s Tim Carney calls “geographic determinism.”

Specifically, relative mobility was lowest for children who grew up in the Southeast and highest in the Mountain West and the rural Midwest. For example, “the probability that a child reaches the top quintile of the national income distribution starting from a family in the bottom quintile is 4.4 percent in Charlotte, North Carolina but 12.9 percent in San Jose, California.” Even life expectancy varies. Whereas the average life expectancy in the U.S. was 79.1 years, it ranged from 66 years in the worst counties to 87 years in the best.

Importantly, the black-white upward mobility gap is the smallest in low and high poverty locales. That is, black males who moved to neighbourhoods with less poverty earlier in childhood were more likely to earn more and graduate from college and less likely to be incarcerated than black males that did not. In contrast, black and white males, relative to their parents, were equally poor when living in an impoverished area. This is a particularly important finding as it suggests that differences in group outcomes may be influenced by where people live.

But why do some areas exhibit higher rates of upward mobility than others? For Carney, social capital is the key. Places with more civic activity, regardless of income, have more upward mobility. In fact, Chetty, calculating an area’s “social capital” score, found a strong correlation between civic activity and upward mobility, with religiosity (e.g. going to church) leading the way. Both white working-class and black inner-city neighbourhoods lack the civic institutions that allow for upward mobility. Furthermore, research suggests that a 15% increase in the proportion of people who think others are trustworthy raises income per person by 1%.

The second factor, personal responsibility, refers to individual decision-making. The role of personal responsibility in group outcomes is supported by a much-publicized study by the Brookings Institute. The researchers, Ron Haskins and Isabel Sawhill, found that to avoid poverty individuals must do three things in order: graduate from high school, work full-time, and not have children outside of marriage. This has come to be known as “the success sequence”. And the statistics supporting it are fascinating.

According to Haskins and Sawhill, individuals in families that adhered to the success sequence had a 98 percent chance of escaping poverty. By contrast, 76 percent of those that did not adhere to any of these norms were poor. In a 2003 analysis of census data, the authors demonstrated that had the poor followed the success sequence, the U.S. poverty rate would have fallen by more than 70 percent. The success sequence affects Canadians, too. A similar study conducted by the Fraser Institute found that 99.1 percent of Canadians who followed the success sequence did not live in poverty. And the pattern remains stable among millennials, as well. According to a study by Wendy Wang and Brad Wilcox, 97 percent of Millennials who followed this sequence did not end up in poverty.

But does personal responsibility help to explain differences in group outcomes? In an analysis of Haskins and Sawhill’s initial study, Brookings Institute researchers found that “blacks and whites who follow the three norms have about the same likelihood of ending up near the middle, with incomes three to five times the federal poverty line.” In fact, Sawhill notes that blacks, despite starting at a lower level than whites, gained far more both absolutely and relatively when following the success sequence, compared to whites. Regardless of racial and ethnic backgrounds, a clear majority of adults who followed the success sequence avoided poverty.

But there is one element of the success sequence that bears closer examination: family structure.

In 1970, the U.S. Census Bureau determined that married parents and their children constituted 40 percent of households. By 2012, that number had fallen to 20 percent. In 1960, 72 percent of adults were married. By 2016, it was 50 percent. According to Pew Research, the share of U.S. children living with an unmarried parent has more than doubled since 1968, jumping from 13 to 32 percent. In fact, almost 40 percent of all babies are now born out of wedlock, with 47 percent and 23 percent of black and Hispanic children being raised by single mothers, respectively. In short, the American family structure has disintegrated, and this weighs heavily upon group outcomes. In general, a child will see the best outcomes in childhood and adulthood if raised by married parents. The social science is remarkably uniform in its conclusions on this matter.

Whereas 8 percent of children born to married parents end up in poverty as adults, 27 percent of children born to unmarried parents live as impoverished adults. According to a study by social scientists Robert Lerman, Joseph Price, and Brad Wilcox, “Youths who grow up with both biological parents earn more income, work more hours each week, and are more likely to be married themselves as adults, compared to children raised in single-parent families.” In fact, a child born to a never-married mother in the bottom fifth of family income is three times more likely to stay in the bottom fifth than a child born to a continuously married mother with an equally low income. To this extent, having stably married parents is worth an extra $40,000 in annual per capita family income.

Furthermore, children raised by single parents not only experience reduced economic gains but face a greater risk of physical harm. Findings on child abuse rates are alarming. Children raised by a single parent are 3 times more likely to be abused compared to children raised by married birth parents. Children raised by a single parent with a live-in partner are 10 times more likely to be abused compared with children raised by married birth parents.

Other research suggests that the costs of child abuse “exceed those of cancer or heart disease…eradicating child abuse in America would reduce the overall rate of depression by more than half, alcoholism by two-thirds, and suicide and IV drug use, and domestic violence by three-quarters.” Single parenthood increases the likelihood of child abuse, and child abuse survivors are less likely to obtain education and employment, and are more likely to experience depression, addiction, and a host of other detrimental outcomes. Therefore, it may be the case that the downsides of single parenthood are even greater than the upsides of intact family structures. As such, it’s not that intact families are so great. It’s that broken families are exceedingly unsafe.

Additionally, research by Lerman and Sawhill suggests that the growth of child poverty from the 1970s to the 1990s was driven, in part, by increases in single-parenthood. Indeed, the current child poverty rate (21.3 percent) would be cut by almost one-quarter had the 1970 rate (12 percent) remained stable. Curiously, several studies have simulated the impact of marriage on poverty rates, “pairing up” single men and women then estimating the effect. One study reported a 43.2 percent increase in the average per capita family income and a 24.7 percent decrease in the child poverty rate. Others report a 43 percent decrease in the black child poverty rate and a 40 percent decrease in the poverty rate among mothers.

Importantly, the economic gap between blacks and whites virtually disappears when we control for family structure. Despite higher rates of poverty among black Americans, the poverty rate among married black Americans has been less than 10 percent in every year since 1994, consistently lower than the white poverty rate. Whereas the Black and White poverty rates were 22 and 11 percent in 2016, respectively, it was 7.5 percent for married blacks. Moreover, one study found that if blacks and whites had the same family structure, the poverty gap would be reduced by more than 70 percent.

Some argue that today’s comparatively weak black family structure is a “legacy” of slavery. This is not supported by the empirical evidence. According to Walter E. Williams, all children in as many as three-fourths of 19th century slave families had the same mother and father. In fact, 85 percent of kin-related black households in New York were two-parent households in 1925 while three-quarters of all black families were intact in Philadelphia in 1880. According to Thomas Sowell, even when blacks were one generation out of slavery, census data revealed a slightly higher percentage of married black adults than married white adults. This fact remained true in every census from 1890 to 1940.

Prior to the 1960s, the difference in marriage rates between black and white males was never greater than 5 percent. Yet, today, that difference is greater than 20 percent.

Fatherlessness lies at the heart of this issue. In 2008, President Obama noted that children who grew up without a father were “five times more likely to live in poverty and commit crime, nine times more likely to drop out of school, and 20 times more likely to end up in prison.” As Warren Farrell and John Gray note in The Boy Crisis, “Depriving a child of his or her dad is depriving a child of part of his or her life.” And indeed, research suggests that fatherless children have telomeres that are 14 percent shorter than that of children with fathers. Shorter telomere length is associated with a shorter lifespan.

Fatherless children have higher rates of suicide, drug abuse, and hypertension. In fact, a staggering 85 percent of young men in prison grew up in fatherless households. This is not at all surprising as every 1 percent increase in fatherlessness in a neighbourhood predicts a 3 percent increase in adolescent violence. Among females, father absence is a remarkably strong predictor of early sexual activity and teen pregnancy. In fact, rates of teenage pregnancy were 7 to 8 times higher among father-absent girls than among father-present girls. This is a particularly important finding as it implicitly touches upon the cyclical nature of fatherlessness. That is, teenage mothers, more likely to come from fatherless households, are more likely to themselves be single mothers.

*   *   *

Then there’s the role of culture. To be clear, culture not only includes customs, values, and attitudes, but also skills and talents that more directly affect economic outcomes. Those with a unique culture often take it with them wherever they live. However, critics of cultural influences have long downplayed the role of culture in the enrichment of once-impoverished immigrant groups. Take Lebanese and Chinese Americans, for example.

When immigration from Lebanon to the United States began in the late 19th century, most of these early immigrants began as street merchants. Once enough money was saved, the Lebanese street merchants would settle down in their own store, open 16 hours a day, with their children stocking shelves and making deliveries. These children, imbibing the shrewdness of operating an independent business on scarce resources, were inculcated with their parents’ work ethic, learning the importance of family unity and delayed gratification. Increasing success in business among Lebanese-Americans afforded their children greater educational opportunities to enter the fields of medicine, law, and science. As such, what mattered was not the little money they arrived with, but the culture of hard work and business acumen the Lebanese brought with them.

Similarly, this pattern of upward mobility is observed among Chinese Americans. Arriving in the U.S. with little more than the clothes on their back, circumstances were such that the suicide rate among Chinese immigrants living in San Francisco was three times the national average. Nevertheless, successive generations of Chinese in the United States have become prosperous through tireless effort. Consider the Brooklyn-based Chinese who immigrated from the Fujian province. According to Kay Hymowitz, the Fujianese “crammed themselves into dorm-like quarters, working brutally long hours waiting tables, washing dishes, and cleaning hotel rooms—and sending their Chinese-speaking children to the city’s elite public schools and on to various universities.” In fact, it is often said that the first English word the Fujianese learn is “Harvard.”

In general, this culture of determination and sacrifice has paid dividends for Chinese Americans not only economically but socially. According to Amy Chua and Jed Rubenfeld, Asian American teenagers—and Asian Americans on the whole —have dramatically lower rates of drug use and heavy drinking than any other racial group in the United States. Moreover, Asian American girls have by far the lowest rates of teenage childbirth of any racial group, with 11 births per thousand in 2010, as compared to 24 for whites.

Attitudes to work differ among groups in the same society. In White Liberals and Black Rednecks, Thomas Sowell details the lack of a work ethic among American antebellum Southern whites. Relative to German immigrants who painstakingly dug up trees by their roots when clearing the land for farming, Southern whites simply cut the tree down and ploughed around the stump. There were similar contrasts in the production of dairy products. Whereas the South had 40 percent of dairy cows in the U.S. in 1860, they produced just 20 percent of butter and only one percent of cheese. This demonstrates how cultural values affect outcomes within members of the same racial group. Consider differences in group outcomes among native and foreign-born blacks.

Despite New York being the principal destination of blacks from the Caribbean, this group is outnumbered by a factor of four by native-born American blacks. Nevertheless, the first black borough presidents of Manhattan were West Indians. As late as 1970, the highest-ranking blacks in New York’s police department were West Indians, as were all the black federal judges in the city. 1970 census data showed that black West Indian families in the New York metropolitan area had 28 percent higher incomes than the families of American blacks. Furthermore, the incomes of second-generation West Indian black families living in the same area exceeded that of black families by 58 percent. Studies published in 2004 revealed that an absolute majority of black college alumni were West Indian or African immigrants, or the children of these immigrants.

Neither race nor racism can explain these differences. Nor can slavery, because West Indian blacks, like native-born blacks, have also experienced a history of slavery. A more plausible explanation is culture. A study of West Indian blacks in the United States noted that they possessed a zest for learning that surpassed native-born Americans of any race.

Culture matters. Researchers, David Austen-Smith and Roland G. Fryer, Jr., note that “black peers and communities impose costs on their members who try to ‘act white’.” To this extent, Fryer and Torelli, using two nationally representative datasets, found that blacks were more likely to associate good grades with unpopularity. In fact, the researchers estimated that eliminating the difference between blacks and whites on their views on grades and popularity would reduce the black-white test score gap by 10 percent, effort gap by 40 percent, and homework completion gap by 60 percent.

Tying It All Together

Geographic determinism, personal responsibility, family structure, and culture work in tandem to explain differences in outcomes. Recall Raj Chetty, whose research found a correlation between neighbourhoods and economic mobility. His study turned up only one other local characteristic that rivalled social capital in boosting social mobility: two-parent households. However, it isn’t enough just to live in a two-parent household. If you grow up amid intact families, the American Dream is alive and well. Indeed, the proliferation of intact families in a neighbourhood serves to increase social capital.

Furthermore, the social capital which underpins geographic determinism is ultimately a consequence of the culture of a neighbourhood. These values influence the decisions made by those living in the neighbourhood. These decisions then feed into family structure, ultimately reinforcing the neighbourhood’s culture while preserving social capital.

All of this is to say, each of these factors are connected. On their own, they can only explain part of why group outcomes differ. But together, they paint a clearer picture than the one drawn by the adherents of white privilege.

These factors are less thrilling than blaming a specific racial group. If we want to feel the satisfaction of directing blame while enhancing in-group solidarity, then invoking white privilege is not a bad strategy. “White privilege” gives you a simple answer and a clear enemy. But if we truly want to understand and mitigate group differences, then taking a closer look at the data is a far better approach.

Vincent Harinam is a law enforcement consultant, research associate at the Independence Institute, and PhD candidate at the University of Cambridge. You can follow him @vincentharinam

Rob Henderson is a Gates Cambridge Scholar and PhD student at the University of Cambridge. You can follow him @robkhenderson


  1. “blacks and whites who follow the three norms have about the same likelihood of ending up near the middle, with incomes three to five times the federal poverty line.”

    But according to the 21st Century Left, if a person behaves irresponsibly, that too is a consequence of privilege/oppression. After all, he didn’t have as much positive influence in his upbringing!

    It all took off with the gay movement (bear with me for a moment). I was only in high school when the “We’re born that way, therefore no one can criticize us!” rhetoric really took off, but I recognized immediately the devastating consequences of mainstreaming that idea. Lazy people are “born that way”. Violent people are “born that way.” But we can’t have a society that magically erases the consequences of acting on these traits.

    No behavior can be immune to criticism or consequences.

    And yet, once the gay agenda opened the door, the floodgates followed. Now the mainstream left-wing platform says that any and all bad behavior (recent Quillette articles on homelessness come to mind) is not the fault of its perpetrators. Unless it benefits the Left to say that it is (whites, males, Christians, and Republicans are responsible for every act the Left dislikes). The goal is to declare that anything the Left dislikes is unacceptable and must be torn down (the Left would much rather talk about the need to destroy “capitalism” than have to defend socialism’s record). Once the “not responsible for my actions” narrative is accepted, then anything that presently exists can be blamed for everything.

    Tearing down any disliked institution becomes easy.

    The “not responsible for my actions” narrative cannot be consistently applied (else I could simply punch anyone who espouses it in the face, then cite the narrative to escape punishment). It is not meant to be consistently applied. It’s meant to print infinite currency for funding left-wing politics. Arguing against it with facts and logic is pointless; its advocates argue against the objectivity of truth.

    We must reject the premise of identity politics, not try to win the game.

  2. What do you mean, “we”, white man?


  3. “But as economist Thomas Sowell points out, these “morally neutral factors seem to attract far less attention than other causal factors which stir moral outrage.” If something is salient (attention-seizing), then it must be causal. And indeed, discrimination, something we are quick to lock our attention onto, unfailingly serves as a popular explanation for differences in group outcomes.”

    The culprit is moral outrage. MSM, progressive academia and politicians - the propagandists of identity politics – stir resentment and hostility between identity groups to lead the struggle. The struggle between rising tide of totalitarianism and democracy.

  4. Excellent essay. One danger of anchoring to something like “white” anything, or any other race-based euphemism for that matter, is that you lose sight of more plausible, prominent, and modifiable factors that contribute to any social end.

    Another danger is akin to crying wolf, such that constant refrains about race merely encourage fatigue among others who will be more inclined to simply tune you out. The further danger of which is that they may be less inclined to notice/listen/care when real and actual racism does next occur.

    So let’s stop blaming race for all manner of stuff, if only so we aren’t desensitized to circumstances when race is actually an issue.

  5. I was keenly looking to the second instalment of this article, and I have to say it does not disappoint. Clear and concise writing, thoroughly well-researched and amazing links. Many of the topics raised and points made, are similar to those I have been making on Quillette, with the distinction that they are referenced and elucidated in a far more professional manner.

    I am particularly grateful for the link to the Congressional Incidence Study on Child Abuse and Neglect, because it illustrates a point I have been trying to make for some time- that as a culture, we vastly underestimate the role of mothers as physical abusers, whilst simultaneously expect fathers to be the source of violence towards children. This is simply not the case. As the first table in section 6-4 clearly indicates, when looking at actual injury to children mothers perpetrated at rates of 75% and 76%, for fatal/serious and moderate injury respectively, whilst fathers were responsible at rates of 45% and 41%. The higher than 100% nature of these statistics, is caused by the grim reality, that sometimes both father and mother are physical abusers.

    What these figures show is that we drastically overestimate the role of fathers as physical abusers, whilst allowing physical abuse of children by women to go undetected. Because, with these types of phenomena, the incidence of minor incidences always possess a causal relationship with even more serious harms. Whether it’s Safety, Health & Environment, error reporting in production runs or tracking minor calibration flaws in reliability-centred maintenance, the small or inconsequential event always foreshadows more catastrophic impacts. And the process works in reverse, showing that our natural reluctance to believe that mothers harm their children with any frequency or repetition, causes us to systemically cause harm to children.

    It’s a cultural bias that extends even to the algorithms that govern Google’s curation. When trying to research mothers as physical abusers of children, the closest most can get to finding evidence is NSPCC sites, which show that men are only marginally less likely to physically abuse children (without accounting for non-familial males in the home), along with the qualifier that this is to be expected given that women bear the majority of burden of child rearing and spend more time in the home with children- as if that were any excuse. Google Scholar is little better. Our current cultural frame causes extraordinary blindspots when looking at cultures, absolving some, whilst scapegoating others.

    Which, of course, is the point of article, and the reason the authors should be commended. Because, whilst Occam’s razor might be useful for studying philosophy or science, the reverse is almost always true in human affairs. The simple explanation is never the right one. Besides which, our prejudices combine to hopelessly bind us. It’s easy to spin a narrative of white preference and unconscious bias, when the reasons behind racial disparities are far more likely to be perverse rather pernicious, and a subtle all-pervasive subconscious racism is only likely to account for small minority of the total disparity in our Western societies. The truth is just too painful to contemplate, and in previous generations was all too likely to result in unproductive victim-blaming with no hope of solution.

    It’s also why all the various initiatives to reverse racial injustice, from the War on Poverty to Affirmative Action and all the other myriad attempts of top-down course corrections, have only ever succeeded by tiny increments, whilst the naturalistic process of equality of opportunity has lead to a far greater raising of boats. The initiatives failed because they got the diagnosis wrong. The true cause of so many of recent history’s inherited woes lie in the hypocrisy of the permissive society. Wealthy white women of yesteryear going on TV and proclaiming that they don’t believe in marriage or monogamy when that was exactly what they wanted for themselves. The white liberal progressive top 10% still asserting the same, whilst being the most likely to get married and stay married. New forms emerge every day, with cosmopolitan liberals in London berating those who question the wisdom of giving kids smart phones and unrestricted access to the internet, when they have the time-resources to stand over their children’s shoulder when they surf the web and can find the latest app to monitor their kids activity. Meanwhile it’s the poor, black boy who pays the price, stabbed to death because of an argument with the wrong people, on social media.

    The far better response than these blanket theoretical terms like white privilege or unconscious bias, is to do as the authors here have done, and become detectives or investigators intent on tracking down the root causes of these divisive racial disparities. The only way to mitigate the eternal friction between equality of opportunity and equality of outcome, is to discover the reasons why disparate outcomes occur and, wherever possible, correct for them. It’s interesting, just the other day I came across a ReasonTV short that touched on many of issues presented in this article:

    What this article, and the ReasonTV piece show in conjunction, is that it is possible to afford a high degree of equality of opportunity to kids from diverse and lower socio-economic backgrounds, provided they have the family structure in place to support their endeavours. In many ways, with Success Academy Eva Moskowitz, has been building exactly the types of high fatherhood communities that Dr Raj Chetty has proved are so vital to a child’s development and their future social mobility. In this light, it might be necessary to look at Andrew Yang’s Freedom Dividend, from an entirely different perspective.

    Maybe all that money raised from a value added tax, or at least a larger proportion of it, would be better deployed as an incrementally higher Family Dividend. By removing the disincentive of welfare from most circumstances and incentivising fatherhood, it might be possible to see a Freedom Dividend as more of an investment in the future success of our Western societies. Indeed, it might also be advisable for the authors of this article to get in contact with Coleman Hughes, to see whether the improvements in the fortunes of young black people, so eloquently described in his recent article, might have their roots in changing family circumstances and the emergence of charters, like Success Academy. Rewarding fatherhood, using a common humanity to solving societal ills, might actually turn out to be the one last indirect attempt at Reparations that actually works. It could, in these circumstances, pays dividends to future generations of tax payers, no longer burdened by the systemic costs of high incarceration rates, unfulfilled potential and the Pandora’s box of high social costs these two phenomena bring.

  6. Erin Pizzey, the founder of the world’s first domestic abuse refuge (shelter) in Britain, argued the same point in the '70s. And for this the feminists ousted her from her organisation and wrote her out of its history. This ran contrary to the feminist dogma that domestic violence was a male issue (arising from patriarchy) and if women were violent, it was because of men and patriarchy, ergo, not women’s fault.

    "Sixty-two women out of a hundred were as violent [as men] . . . . There are plenty of men who by accident get involved with violent women and end up suffering exactly the same way [as abused women].

    The way forward to resolve this problem is to adjust the Balkanised emphasis from women’s issues and men’s issues and put it on holistic family issues.

  7. The article is strong but the logical flaw error regarding disparities of output as evidence of discrimination is worse than stated. It is said that if discrimination exists then differences in outcome will arise but that diffrences in outcome can arise from other sources so is not evidence that discrimination has necessarily occured. "“If discrimination exists, then differences in outcomes will arise.”

    In fact it is not even the case that discrimination will lead to differences in outcome. It can be the discrimination leads instead to equality of outcome. In fact if there is a persistent close alignment between percenatge outcomes for a set of groups and outcome percentages that is unlikey to arise without discrimination.

    The link between unequal outcomes and discrimination is even more tenuous than stated in the article.

  8. This is all well and good, but I actually think that attributing unequal outcomes solely to oppression due to gender, race, etc. is not a bug, but a feature. Whatever is written in the article is pretty obvious to everyone, but only one interpretation can ensure that the struggle for equal outcome will continue indefinitely and activism stays relevant as long as possible. And it is exactly what is being perpetuated in liberally media and academia. So, you can analyze this stuff to death, but unless ideology changes, or, more likely, becomes irrelevant (for example, in the struggle to feed families due to socialist policies we will not care about equality anymore), there is nothing you can do about it presently. It just is what it is.

  9. Some years ago, feminist groups lobbied state legislatures in the US to pass laws requiring police officers to arrest someone when they are sent out on a domestic violence call. No longer would the police be allowed to exercise professional judgment as to whether an act of domestic violence had actually occurred. Someone had to be arrested and it would be left to the courts to decide what, if anything, really happened.

    An unintended consequence of this - unintended for the women who had lobbied for the new laws, that is - was an increase in the number of women arrested for domestic violence.

    For example: a woman calls 911 and says her husband hit her. The police arrive and find a woman standing 5’1" and weighing 115 lbs, and a husband standing 6’2" and weighing 250 lbs. The woman, sobbing hysterically, points a finger at the husband and says “He hit me in front of the kids!” (Domestic violence committed in the presence of children often results in an enhanced sentence.)

    The husband says: "I never touched her. She hit me with her cell phone, the TV remote and her hands. I wasn’t going to call you guys because it’s embarrassing and I wasn’t hurt. "

    No marks on either one of them. Nothing for the officers to photograph for evidence. Still, the law is the law and their jobs are on the line. They have to arrest somebody.

    They take the kids outside where the parents can’t hear, and ask them: “Who did the hitting?”

    Mom gets arrested and spends the night in jail.

    It used to be that the police would give both parties a stern talking-to, threaten the wife with an arrest if she ever pulled that stunt again, and then depart.

    No more. Now, somebody is taken away in handcuffs and their arrest for domestic violence - never mind if the charges are later dropped by the prosecutor - follows them around like a tin can tied to their leg in a nation-wide criminal database for the rest of their lives.

  10. Actually, it is a line from Mad magazine, from the 1950’s, in a parody of The Lone Ranger and Tonto. The LR and T are surrounded by thousands of hostile Native Americans.

    LR: " What do we do now, Tonto?"

    T: “What you mean we, white man?”

  11. Someone has to say it: part of the disparity in outcomes is due to genetics. Different racial and ethnic groups have different average IQs, and studies have shown that most of these differences come down to genetics. (As an aside, if you were to rank racial groups—along with large and distinct ethnic groups—by average IQ, (non-Jewish) Europeans would not be at the top. They’d be far behind Ashkenazi Jews, significantly behind East Asians, and likely behind Brahmins.) Human race is a real biological phenomenon, despite the many specious arguments to the contrary. By comparing allele frequencies across arbitrarily many loci, we can use the k-means algorithm to partition the human population into N groups, for 1 < N < (Earth’s population), such that the genetic distance between any two members of a given group is always less than the smallest of the distances between members of different groups. Moreover, for any m > n, if the algorithm places two individuals in the same group with parameter k = m, it will also place them in the same group with parameter k = n.

    The last time the issue of race came up on Quillette, the race-deniers settled on the the fact that k can be varied as their best defense. “If the algorithm can be tuned to output any number of ‘races’,” they said, “then there is no reason to accept any racial taxonomy as biologically meaningful.” This is a specious argument. Its speciousness is evident, but I can elaborate if necessary.

    I sympathize with the wish for the “blank slate” hypothesis to be true. But it’s just not.

  12. I just watched “Hi Privilege. It’s Me, Chelsea” in which the well-off (somehow) Chelsea Handler sets out to prove that white privilege is a real thing. In one scene, she reunites with the black boyfriend she had as a teen, who spent 14 years in jail for armed robbery. Somehow, Handler seems to believe that her ability to transcend her wild teen years is an effect of white privilege, while her former boyfriend wound up in jail. The illogic is palpable. The ex boyfriend seems to believe that he had no other means of helping his overwhelmed single mother but armed robbery. Handler seems to support this by nodding empathically. Therefore, white privilege is that a white person knows better than to engage in self-destructive criminal behavior.

    Yet, if the aim is to eradicate white privilege. how would this be done without monitoring the young black person, to keep him from destroying himself? Either that or we allow armed robbery, without punishment, so as to eradicate this so-called “privilege,” thus privileging blacks to commit crimes without fear of punishment so that they can somehow succeed.

    It seemed that most of the heart-to-heart discussions in which Handler engaged with black Americans pointed out an incapacity to get a job, live within one’s means, and stay out of jail. In other words, being white imbues one with common sense. Being black is to be saddled with an inability to survive without breaking the law.

  13. “In 1970, the U.S. Census Bureaudetermined that married parents and their children constituted 40 percent of households. By 2012, that number had fallen to 20 percent. In 1960, 72 percentof adults were married. By 2016, it was 50 percent. According to Pew Research, the share of U.S. children living with an unmarried parent has more than doubled since 1968, jumping from 13 to 32 percent. In fact, almost 40 percentof all babies are now born out of wedlock, with 47 percent and 23 percentof black and Hispanic children being raised by single mothers, respectively. In short, the American family structure has disintegrated, and this weighs heavily upon group outcomes.”

    So what occurred between 1960 and now? Answer: the War on Poverty with its expanded welfare benefits and incentives for out of wedlock births, essentially paying people to remain poor. UBI will only serve to exacerbate this problem and tend. Unfortunately then no one heeded the warnings of Daniel Patrick Moynihan.

  14. Why would one choose to do such a thing? Was it a Clockwork Orange type situation?

  15. I am a caucasian female with a PhD in chemistry, but started life in a poverty stricken area of Southern California (Inglewood) that was and still is predominantly African American. I lived with a single parent (father), had no family or social network, but was lucky that we didn’t own a TV and my father taught me to read before kindergarten. One striking difference between my house and those of my friends in the neighborhood was the absence of books or anything that could be construed as educational. I filled my time with reading and studying while my elementary school pals ran around the neighborhood or watched TV. I was bullied for being “smart”, which was an extreme negative in the neighborhood. By my teen years it was understood that having a baby at 16 was just fine, welfare was an entitlement (this was before Clintons overhaul of welfare benefits limiting it to a 5 year lifetime limit), and men weren’t expected to stick around after impregnation. Culture has a huge impact on outcomes - many groups live in poverty but don’t succumb to the self destructive impulses that plague U.S. born poor, both black and white.

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