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Olga Tokarczuk: Poland’s “Patriots” Struggle To Accept The Nobel Prize

For a few minutes on Thursday afternoon, after Olga Tokarczuk’s Nobel Prize in Literature had been announced by the Nobel Committee, Polish public television did not mention her name. Her picture appeared on the screen of TVP Info, the public news channel, along with the headline: “A Pole Awarded the Nobel Prize.” But her name was conspicuously omitted.

I had rushed to turn on our TV at the Warsaw editorial offices of Gazeta Wyborcza, a liberal newspaper, to see how public television would handle the news. Previous Polish Nobel Laureates—from Marie Curie to Wisława Szymborska—have been sources of great national pride in Poland. But Tokarczuk is on the Polish Ministry of Culture’s informal “black list,” and it may well be that in the minutes following the announcement of her award, the TVP Info editors simply did not dare mention her name. So, ironically, a writer who has been consistently denounced as unpatriotic by the ruling national-conservative establishment, was simply described as a Pole. 

This weekend, a week before the parliamentary elections next Sunday (October 13), the charismatic chairman of the ruling Law and Justice Party (PiS), Jarosław Kaczyński, lashed out against the country’s “cultural elites.” Kaczyński is the most powerful politician in Poland, and a more dominant political figure than both the Prime Minister and the President. During a rally in the Polish city of Sosnowiec, he declared that the country’s new cultural elites do not work for “the enemies of Poland.”

Who are these enemies of Poland? In Kaczyński’s worldview, they are Polish artists, like Olga Tokarczuk, who have not adhered to the ideology promulgated by PiS since its election victory in 2015—an ideology central to its project to reshape Poland along authoritarian lines. According to the party, writers and filmmakers must not reopen the country’s national wounds, or remind the public of the darkest chapters of the country’s history—such as those shameful instances in which Poles gave their Jewish countrymen up to the Nazis during the Second World War. 

Instead, according to the PiS view, history must be treated as a source of inspiration for young Poles, and it is therefore the duty of artists to present a glorious past and focus on the heroic deeds of the Polish people. Artists who follow the Party’s demands are rewarded, but not all have agreed to do so. Among those who have resisted, some had already attained fame in the West and were therefore not dependent on the government for funds.

When Kaczyński denounced the Poles who continue to work with the “enemy,” he no doubt included Olga Tokarczuk—a symbol of the kind of culture which the Polish right most fiercely despises. Tokarczuk is a passionate proponent of tolerance, feminism and European unity. She has defended the rights of Polish women and sexual minorities, for instance by protesting a proposed ban on abortion in 2016. In her books, she deals merciless blows to the image of Polish heroism, which PiS is doing its best to promote. Tokarczuk has repeated that Poles “in the past did terrible things”: as colonizers; as a majority suppressing minorities; as owners of slaves; and in some cases, as murderers of Jews.

“I believe that we need to face our own history and rewrite it without hiding all those horrible things,” she said when she received the Nike Prize in 2016, the most prestigious writer’s award in Poland. 

Piotr Gliński, the PiS Minister of Culture and National Heritage, is of a different view. He has forcefully imposed PiS ideology on Polish cultural life in the four years since his appointment. He intervened against the showing of a theatre piece which he found obscene; he cut funding for a music festival because he found the people involved in it too controversial; he fired the director of the famous Museum of the Second World War, claiming that he had not done enough to stress how Poland suffered during the German occupation; he has refused to sign the nomination of the elected director of the Museum of History of Polish Jewry, because the director claimed that anti-Semitism remains a problem in today’s Poland; and he recently called for Polish cultural elites to be replaced by more “Polish” and “patriotic” individuals.

Tokarczuk’s inclusion on the informal “black list” of Gliński’s ministry, means that she should not be invited or promoted by cultural institutions run by the Polish government abroad. The Polish Book Institute—another institution under Gliński’s control—which promotes the translation and publication of Polish writers outside Poland, has removed translations of Tokarczuk’s novels from its priority list and replaced her with authors who are loyal to the party and whose patriotism is not in question. 

On Tuesday, two days before the Nobel Committee’s announcement, Gliński appeared as a guest on a Polish TV show. As the conversation turned to Tokarczuk’s work, Gliński did his best to play down her importance as a writer: “I started reading her books, but never finished them,” he said.

It is little wonder that, when her Nobel Prize was announced two days later, Poland’s public television was at loss to know how to deal with the news. In December 2015, PiS passed a new law which allows the government to take full control over the public media. In the following weeks, editors-in-chief were replaced by politicians from PiS. More than 200 journalists were fired or otherwise forced to quit. They were denounced as unpatriotic, un-Polish and disloyal to the ruling party.

Since then, public media has been broadcasting pure propaganda: They praise the government, and are ready to admonish and slander everybody who opposes it—be they politicians of the opposition, malicious journalists, decadent artists, Angela Merkel, Hillary Clinton or Emmanuel Macron. The Polish government has a long and growing list of enemies.

Shortly after Tokarczuk’s Nobel Prize was announced, somebody managed to call Culture Minister Gliński and broadcast the phone conversation live. The Minister was noticeably embarrassed. He dryly congratulated Tokarczuk, allowed that it was an important day for Polish culture and went on to promise on Twitter that he would finish reading her books.

Shortly afterwards, public television decided to run with the pack. Tokarczuk’s Nobel Prize, it decided, was a glorious victory for Polish patriotism after all. In the hours that have passed since Thursday afternoon, public television has incessantly broadcast the message that Tokarczuk’s award is a success for Poland and its formidable government. It is just another lie promulgated at the whim of the ruling party. 

 

Bartosz Wieliński is a Polish journalist and head of the Foreign Department of the Polish daily Gazeta Wyborcza. Follow him on Twitter @Bart_Wielinski

Feature image: Martin Kraft/Wikimedia Commons.

Comments

  1. I’m far from caught-up on the politics of Poland, but this woman seems like Marianne Williamson cross-bred with Whoopi Goldberg. From other articles:

    “She’s a mystic in constant search of the truth, a truth that can only be perceived on the move, by transcending borders,” said Kinga Dunin, a friend and fellow writer.

    “All set forms, institutions and language are death,” Dunin told AFP.

    She’s also, apparently, guilty of serious cultural appropriation:

    A vegetarian and environmentalist with long, dark dreadlocks

  2. The real story sounds like the state takeover of public media. How important is it that the current ruling polish government thinks one of its authors is not worth congratulating? It sounds like the equivalent of if trump didn’t congratulate Rachel Maddow for winning an Emmy.

    What are the private media corporations in Poland? How prominent is public tv in Poland? Is it anything like in the US? A geriatric dinosaur with terminal cancer who’s own relatives don’t even know is still alive?

    Is it one of the major networks? If so, that seems dangerous. I guess even if it isn’t a major source of news…that the government has its own broadcasting platform that it’s using to forward its ideology is not good.

  3. It is most spread network as, technically, anyone with working tv has access to it. And it is mostly financed by public money and the director is always a politician delegated by ruling party. It is pretty much a sort of legacy left behind by communist government. TVP simply wouldn’t be able to survive if they went full private and commercial.

    Tbh, nowadays it is mostly watched by elderly people who simply don’t need access to commercial networks.

  4. I was a bit taken aback by my own reaction to the word “tolerance”. I automatically took it to mean the opposite.

  5. I just took a few moments to review the recent history of the Swedish Academy, which is responsible for handing out the Nobel Prize for literature.

    Or, as I like to think of them, the Swedish Clown-Car Wreck.

  6. “She has defended the rights of Polish women and sexual minorities, for instance by protesting a proposed ban on abortion in 2016.”

    I understand how feminists believe that guaranteeing access to abortion protects the rights of women. I do not know what a “sexual minority” who would need access to abortion is, if not a woman.

    I hate to be cynical, especially being unfamiliar with Polish politics, but I get the distinct impression that Ms. Tokarczuk’s crowd would be equally oppressive and authoritarian should they gain power.

  7. Thanks for the rundown! Of course it only raises more questions, but I’ll look into them myself.

  8. I would like to see an article in Quillette on the current differences between the Russian/ Eastern European mindset and the Western European mindset. I think it would be a great idea for a future piece in Quillette if someone feels suitably informed to write such an article .

    I would be particularly interested in the differences in the attitudes towards religion and political correctness as it is clearly apparent that there are fundamental differences.

  9. This article sounds one-sided.

    First, the Nobel Prize in literature is very politically motivated. It’s a political spectacle over who will receive head pats from the Nobel Committee for being a good and obedient ideologue. So though I know little of Olga’s work, I doubt the award is deserved.

    Second, she may not represent the hegemony of Poland, but she does represent the hegemony in the vast majority Europe. Olga may be a rebel in Poland, but Poland rebels against Europe. The European Union treats Poland like crap, and its reputation in Western Europe is that of a second-class country.

    I find Poland’s turn to pride inspiring, bright, and rejuvenating in the face of the cultural darkness which inspires the rest of Europe to self-flagellate and virtue-signal in an orgy of contemporary liberal-leftist ideology. Western Europe uses the shame and guilt of its populace to control them.

  10. She is an enemy of Poland because she wants to destroy Poland’s borders and besiege it with third world immigrants ( invaders ).

    She wants to rewrite Poland’s history, focusing exclusively on the warts and not the triumphs. Like all psychopaths she wants to instil shame and guilt in those she hates.

    That is a definition of enemy.

  11. Eastern European / Russian men don’t bow to feminist ideology unlike in Western Europe where pusillanimity rules the day . For that matter the majority of the women I have met from Eastern Europe/ Russia laugh at it as well.

  12. While waiting for this future piece to appear, be sure to check out Rod Dreher’s blog over at TAC. He frequently writes about this East v. West ‘mindset’ question, to the point of overkill.

  13. There’s a recipe for getting the Nobel Peace Prize:

    1. Wage war.
    2. Stop.
    3. Pick up your NPP.

    See, e.g., Kissinger, Mandela, Arafat.

  14. Yeah, few years back I would have applauded a feminist writers but not anymore. Those days are forever gone and massive suspicion towards all lefties has taken place instead.

  15. I do not know how this text found it’s way to Quilette.
    Nevertheless it is fine that Quilette readers have the opportunity to learn how the leftist propaganda in Poland looks like.

    “When Kaczyński denounced the Poles who continue to work with the “enemy,” he no doubt included Olga Tokarczuk—a symbol of the kind of culture which the Polish right most fiercely despises.” writes Mr. Wieliński. It is pure propaganda. In an internet interview by wPolityce.pl in 2016 asked about what is he currently reading, Kaczyński answered: "I will surprise you - I read “Księgi Jakubowe” (“Jacob’s Books”) by Olga Tokarczuk.

    “Tokarczuk’s inclusion on the informal “black list” of Gliński’s ministry, means that she should not be invited or promoted by cultural institutions run by the Polish government abroad. The Polish Book Institute—another institution under Gliński’s control—which promotes the translation and publication of Polish writers outside Poland, has removed translations of Tokarczuk’s novels from its priority list and replaced her with authors who are loyal to the party and whose patriotism is not in question”

    The truth is, that from the the year 2016 Polish Book Institute subsidized Olga Tokarczuk with more than 700 000 zloty, to support 25 translations of her books onto 19 languages.

    Honestly saying the above quotes are the details only. The whole text consists of lies, inaccuracies and before all - portraits Poland from the point of view of the leftist propaganda aparatchik (Mr. Bartosz Wieliński works as the journalist in the “Gazeta Wyborcza” daily, which brings together the environment openly hostile to the values that are close to the hearts of the creators of Quilette.).

    It is very probable - as it was done lots of times before - that this Quilette publication will return to Poland, published in Gazeta Wyborcza with the comment “Australian conservative site warns against the rise of fascism in Poland”, or something like that. A testimony that open-minded folks from a distant corner of the world are threatened by emerging Polish autocracy, right-wing extremism etc.

    I strongly advise the Quilette readers not to build the opinion about Poland on this deplorable lecture.

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