Education, recent, Social Science

Cambridge Capitulates to the Mob and Fires a Young Scholar

We live at a time where academic freedom is under threat from ideologues and activists of all persuasions. The latest threat comes from St Edmund’s College, Cambridge, where administrators appear to have capitulated to a mob of activists (students and academics) who mounted a campaign to have a young scholar fired for “problematic” research. The back-story was covered by Quillette last December.

The norms of academia—which have been built up and preserved by institutions such as Cambridge for centuries—demand that academics engage with each other in a scholarly manner. That is, if one academic has a problem with the methods or conclusions of another’s research, he or she should address those concerns within journals, according to established procedures, which other scholars can then read and respond to, including the academic whose research is being challenged.

Today, due to the hyper-specialisation of academic fields, most academics will not be able to judge the quality of scholarship that is published in journals outside their field. That’s why when research is peer-reviewed it is done by experts in the specific field in which the research was carried out, not by a random selection of university professors. Just as a professor of English will not be able to judge a study conducted within chemical engineering, a chemical engineer will not be able to assess a scholarly essay on Shakespeare’s sonnets.

To judge the quality of Dr Noah Carl’s work authoritatively, one would have to be an expert in at least one of the following fields: psychology, intelligence research (a sub-field of psychology), and/or economics. The campaign against him began with an ‘open letter’ that was signed by hundreds of academics, but they did not have expertise in these areas. (For the most part, they had qualifications in fields like anthropology, gender studies and critical race studies). This is a clear departure from the established norms that, until recently, were adhered to in academic debates, a point made in an editorial about this affair by the executive team at the Heterodox Academy:

Communal inquiry and debate are at the heart of the academy. As researchers, we put our ideas into the crucible of open inquiry and rely on debate and discussion to refine understanding and advance solutions to complex problems. The practice of issuing open letters attacking scholars for their contributions undermines this important goal by evicting academics and their ideas from the arena—often on flimsy evidentiary grounds. More constructive responses can and should be employed.

The administrators at St Edmund’s College who determined that Dr Noah Carl should be fired did not have qualifications in these areas, either. The Master of St. Edmunds is a former banker, and the administrator who led the investigation that decided Dr Carl is guilty of “poor scholarship” is a veterinary scientist.

Admittedly, one does not have to be an expert in a specific field to adjudicate on matters of academic misconduct such as fraud or data fabrication—and Dr Carl has been accused of “ethical breaches”. But the statement by the Master on the college website justifying Dr Carl’s dismissal stops short of alleging anything close to academic fraud. The sin he’s been found guilty of—his “ethical breach”—is carrying out “problematic” research, such as producing a paper on the accuracy of consensual stereotypes about the characteristics of different groups (e.g. sexes, races, nationalities). Here is the key passage in the Master’s statement:

There was a serious risk that Dr Carl’s appointment could lead, directly or indirectly, to the College being used as a platform to promote views that could incite racial or religious hatred, and bring the College into disrepute.

So Dr Carl has been dismissed not because his research is fraudulent or inaccurate, but because there’s a risk it could lead indirectly to bad actors promoting views that could incite racial or religious hatred. It matters not whether the scholarship is true; the critical thing is whether it upsets people.

Universities like Cambridge proudly resisted these assaults on intellectual freedom in the past—it was the home of such free thinkers as Erasmus, Charles Darwin and John Maynard Keynes. Indeed, protecting scholars from persecution by political and religious pressure became one of the defining purposes of the world’s great universities.

Imagine what would happen if the behaviour of St Edmund’s College become a new norm. Should philosophers who debate issues of euthanasia and abortion be fired because some Christian students might find their work offensive? Should novelists like Salman Rushdie be refused a platform because their work could incite religious hatred? Should geneticists who discover differences in populations emerging from genetic ancestry be fired because some students might be offended by these findings? Should biologists who operate on the assumption that sex is bimodal be defunded because some trans rights activists might find their work upsetting? The list of scholars who could be fired if the standard that has been applied to Dr Noah Carl is applied universally is endless.

The editors at Quillette steadfastly support the foundational principles of open inquiry and free thought. While we are not academics, we are gravely concerned that an injustice to a young scholar has occurred in this particular instance, and that more broadly, academic freedom is buckling under political pressure. If the custodians of Cambridge are unable to protect its distinguished history and foundational principles, it is up to all of us to take a stand in support of them.


Claire Lehmann is the Editor-in-Chief of Quillette

 

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Academic Signatories in Support of Dr Noah Carl

Statement: We would like to express our support for Dr Noah Carl and our disappointment with the Governing Body of St Edmund’s College for the injustice visited upon this young scholar.

Aaron Slepkov, Associate Professor of Physics and Astronomy, Trent University
Abhishek Saha, School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London
Adam Kissel, American University
Adam Rallo, Education Design, Sheridan College
Adam Rawlings, PhD
Alain Guët, Teaching Fellow, Science and Engineering-Language Department, Sorbonne University

Alberto Aimi, Research fellow, University of Brescia, Department of Law
Aldo Filomeno, Postdoctoral Researcher, Institute of Philosophy, Czech Academy of Sciences

Alex Simonelis, Computer Science Dept, Dawson College, Montreal
Alex Small, Professor of Physics, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona
Alexander Larson, Student, Harvard University, Master Sergeant, US Army (retired)
Alexander Marr, Reader in the History of Early Modern Art, University of Cambridge
Anders Blomqvist, Professor Emeritus Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University
Andy Sellwood, Instructional Associate, Vancouver Community College
Andreas Kinneging, University of Leiden, Faculty of Law, Professor in Philosophy of Law
Andrei Grigoriev, Chief Researcher, Institute of Psychology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Andres Biehl, Assistant Professor, Sociology, Pontificia Universidad Catolica, Chile
Andrew Steane, Professor of Physics, University of Oxford
Anthony Hanwell, PhD, DEng
Ann Bergman, Associate Professor, Stanford University
Anne O’Connor, PhD
Anthony Mancini, Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Pace University
April Bleske-Rechek, Professor of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire
Armando Aranda-Anzaldo, Professor of Molecular Biology, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México

Arnie Keller, Professor Emeritus, Department of English, University of Victoria
Artur Doshchyn, DPhil Student in Economics, Nuffield College and University of Oxford
Asbjørg Westum, PhD in Scandinavian Languages, Senior Lecturer

Ashok Panikkar, Lecturer
Astrid Elbers, Doctor in History of Science, University of Antwerp (Linguapolis)

Assistant Professor Jason Lepojärvi, Department of Religious Studies, Thorneloe University at Laurentian
Assistant Professor Mahan Kulasegaram

Associate Professor Darren Burke, School of Psychology, University of Newcastle
Associate Professor Geoffrey Miller, Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico
Associate Professor John Ashton, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Otago
Associate Professor Paul Johnston, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Mount Royal University
Associate Professor Peter Ouwehand, Faculty of Commerce, University of Cape Town
Associate Professor Roy Frye, Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh
Associate Professor, Stephen Leonard
Associate Professor Steve Stewart-Williams, University of Nottingham
Associate Professor Tim Martin

Aurelio Jose Figueredo, Professor of Psychology, University of Arizona
Barbara Hewson, Barrister-at-law
Ben J. Smith, PhD
Benjamin Winegard, Assistant Professor of Psychology
Bernard Hugueney, PhD, Lecturer in Computer Science
Bill von Hippel, Professor of Psychology, University of Queensland
Birol Baskan, PhD

Boudewijn Bouckaert, Professor Emeritus, Law School, Ghent University
Bo Winegard, Assistant Professor of Psychology, Marietta College
Brage Kraft, PhD

Bruce Brasington, Regents’ Professor of History, West Texas A&M University
C A White, PhD
Cal De Burgh, PhD candidate, International Human Rights Law, Liverpool Hope University

Cameron Harwick, Assistant Professor of Economics at the College at Brockport, SUNY
Catherine Ruth Pakaluk, Assistant Professor of Social Research and Economic Thought, The Catholic University of America
Catherine Smith, Professor, The Information School, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Carlos Garcia, PhD
Charles Banks, PhD
Charles Murray, Hayek Emeritus Scholar, American Enterprise Institute
Charlotta Stern, Professor of Sociology, Stockholm University

Charmayne Paul, Learning Advisor, Indigenous Student Support, Central Queensland University, Cairns Campus
Cheryl Taylor, Associate Professor in English Literature, James Cook University (retired)

Chris Brown, Emeritus Professor of International Relations, LSE
Christian Honey DPhil
Christina Hoff Sommers, Resident Scholar, American Enterprise Institute
Christine Furedy, Associate Professor Emerita, York University, Canada

Christopher Adkins, Adjunct Professor, Humanities, Hillsborough Community College
Christopher Ellis, Associate Professor of Political Science, Bucknell University
Christopher Flavin, Associate Professor of English
Christopher Lim, Assistant Teaching Professor, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Rutgers University
Christopher McDowell, Reader, International Politics, City, University of London
Christopher White, Associate Professor, International Relations, Bjorknes University College
Craig Miller, PhD University of Canterbury, NZ
Cristofre Kayser PhD, Adjunct Professor of the Humanities, Midwestern Career College

Christopher Milburn, Assistant Professor (Medicine) Dalhousie University
Colin Feltham, Emeritus Professor, Sheffield Hallam University
Colin Masters, Senior Lecturer, School of Medicine – Central Clinical, University of Queensland
Colin Mills, Associate Professor of Sociology, University of Oxford
Camilo Ortiz PhD, Associate Professor of Psychology, Long Island University-Post
Dan Demetriou, Associate Professor, Philosophy, University of Minnesota, Morris
Dan Eisenberg, Associate Professor, University of Washington

Daniel Jacobson, Professor of Philosophy, University of Michigan
Daniel Klein, Professor of Economics, George Mason University
Daniel Rogers, Professor of Psychology, Kennesaw State University
Danny Weston, PhD

Darij Grinberg, Dunham Jackson Assistant Professor, University of Minnesota
Dario Maestripieri, Professor of Professor of Comparative Human Development, Evolutionary Biology, and Neurobiology, The University of Chicago
David Butterfield, Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Classics, University of Cambridge

David Clemens, Emeritus Professor of English, Monterey Peninsula College
David Daintree, Director, Christopher Dawson Centre for Cultural Studies, Hobart, Australia
David Johnston, PhD Candidate, Australian National University
David Kwan, Department of Biology, Concordia University
David Gil, Senior Research Scientist, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena, Germany
David Leary, Visiting Professor, Chengdu University of Technology, China
David Morley, PhD Mathematics, Rockwell Science Centern (retired)
David Mumford, University Professor Emeritus, Brown Unversity

David Potts, Professor of Philosophy, City College of San Francisco
David Walsh, Senior Lecturer Mathematics, Maynooth University (retired)

David Wootton, Professor of History, The University of York
Davide Spinello, Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ottawa
David Turnbull, PhD

D.L. Noorlander, Assistant Professor of History, SUNY Oneonta
Dayag Sheykhkarimli, Ph.D. candidate, Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto
Deborah Fox, Professor of English, University of Alaska Anchorage
Dennis Hayes, Professor of Education and Director of Academics For Academic Freedom
Derek Tharp, Assistant Professor of Finance, University of Southern Maine
Dimokritos Kavadias, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Free University of Brussels, Belgium

Doug Jones, Associate Professor, Department of Anthropology, University of Utah
Doug Stokes, Professor in International Security, University of Exeter
Douglas Detterman, Louis D. Beaumont University Professor Emeritus, Case Western Reserve University
Douglas Macdonald, Emeritus Professor, Political Science, Colgate University

Dr Aaron Kindsvatter
Dr Abhyuday Kumara Swamy, Clinical Research Fellow, Aster hospital, Bangalore, India
Dr Adam Perkins, Lecturer in the Neurobiology of Personality, King’s College London
Dr Adrian Hilton, FRSA, The Margaret Thatcher Centre
Dr Alexander Young

Dr Alka Sehgal Cuthbert
Dr Andrej Kokkonen, Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg
Dr Andrew Rankin
Dr Angshuman Maulik
Dr Anne O’Connor
Dr Annette Lawson
Dr Antony Browne
Dr Arthur Van Riel, Dr. Senior fellow Netherlands Scientific Council for Government Policy and Utrecht University

Dr B. Christopher Frueh, Professor of Psychology, University of Hawaii
Dr Bernadette De Wit

Dr Bill Budd, School of Psychology, The University of Newcastle
Dr Bruce Harry
Dr Calum Miller, Research Associate, University of Oxford
Dr Camilo Ortiz, Associate Professor of Psychology, Long Island University
Dr Camilo Ortiz, Associate Professor of Psychology, Long Island University-Post
Dr Carrie-Ann Biondi, Associate Professor of Philosophy
Dr Cesar Gonzalez-Perez, Staff Scientist, Spanish National Research Council
Dr Charleen D. Adams, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope
Dr Charles Allen
Dr Charles Banks
Dr Chris Della Vedova, Program Director Natural Sciences, University of South Australia
Dr Christopher Langan-Fox

Dr Christopher Shell
Dr Christopher Watkins, Senior Lecturer in Psychology, Abertay University
Dr Colin Sinclair
Dr Colin Wright, Department of Biology, Pennsylvania State University
Dr Craig Paterson
Dr Dagfinn Skre, Professor of Philosophy, University of Oslo
Dr Damian O’Connor

Dr Dan Pamment
Dr Daniel Mitchell
Dr Daniele Fanelli, Fellow in Quantitative Methodology, London School of Economics

Dr David Gabbard, College of Education, Boise State University
Dr David Goodhew, Cranmer Hall, St Johns College, Durham University
Dr David Marshall
Dr Dayna V. Goldstein
Dr Diane Molloy
Dr Dimitri van der Linden

Dr Dominic Green, Fellow of the Royal Historical Society
Dr Drasko Dizdar

Dr Evan Picoult, Adjunct Professor, Decision, Risk, and Operations Department, Columbia Business School
Dr Fabian Battaglini
Dr Florian Sander, LLM, Harvard Law School

Dr Francesca Minerva, Department of Philosophy University of Gent
Dr Frank Passani, Spanish Language Teacher
Dr Frank Prengel
Dr Frank Wolters

Dr Gad Saad, Professor of Marketing, Research Chair in Evolutionary Behavioral Science, Concordia University
Dr Gary Guerra, School of Prosthetics and Orthotics Faculty of Medicine, Mahidol University
Dr Gary Sasso,  Emeritus Dean, College of Education, Lehigh University
Dr Gary Woolley
Dr Graham Wheatley, FRCGP
Dr Graham Wood, School of Humanities, University of Tasmania
Dr Gregory Gorelik
Dr Guy Chamberland, Associate Professor, Thorneloe University at Laurentian
Dr Guy Madison, Professor of Psychology, Department of Psychology, Umeå University
Dr Hal Pashler, Professor of Psychology, Univ of California, San Diego
Dr Hardy Hulley, Senior Lecturer in Finance, University of Technology Sydney
Dr Hasan Bahçekapili

Dr Helmuth Nyborg, Professor Emeritus, Aarhus University, Denmark
Dr Isaac Balbin

Dr Jacobo Arredondo, Lead Chair Anthoplogy Department, University of Aunna-Florence
Dr James Green, PhD CEng MIMechE
Dr James Greville, Lecturer in Psychology, University of South Wales
Dr James Kierstead, Senior Lecturer in Classics, Victoria University of Wellington
Dr James Lindsay
Dr James Moran, Charité Berlin
Dr James Oexmann

Dr Jan de Ruiter
Dr Jan te Nijenhuis

Dr Jason Richwine
Dr Jaspreet Singh Boparai
Dr Javier Reyes
Dr Jay Raskin, Adjunct Philosophy Instructor, Valencia College
Dr Jeffrey Ketland
Dr Jeroen Van Rijen
Dr Jim Schofield
Dr Johan Wennström, Research Institute of Industrial Economics
Dr John Collins
Dr John Evans, MBBS FRANZCR

Dr Jonatan Pallesen, Genetics
Dr Joshua D. Wright,  Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University
Dr Julian Naber
Dr Keith Hotten, Barrister, Principal Lecturer, Faculty of Law, University of Hong Kong

Dr Kenya Kura, Economics, Gifu Shotoku Gakuen University
Dr Klaus Ostermann, Professor of Computer Science, University of Tuebingen
Dr Lars Davidsson, MRCPsych
Dr Leigh Gibson, Reader, Roehampton University
Dr Leon Stander

Dr Lorenzo Lazzerini Ospri
Dr Loyd S. Pettegrew, Professor Emeritus, Department of Communication, University of South Florida
Dr Maarten Biesheuvel
Dr Manfred Luetzow

Dr Marco Del Giudice, Associate Professor, Department of Psychology University of New Mexico
Dr Marcus T Anthony, Associate Professor, College of Global Talent, Zhuhai, China
Dr Markus Hahn

Dr Marian Mazzone, Art & Architectural History, College of Charleston
Dr Mario Rollo, Bioscience Institute, Coastal Campus, Sao Paulo State University
Dr Mark Andrew Ashby, Postdoctoral Researcher, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University
Dr Mark Duffett
Dr Mark Gee
Dr Mark Wanstall, Senior Lecturer, Carnegie School of Education

Dr Markus Weishaupt
Dr Martin Sewell, Economics
Dr Matt Hickey, Professor and University Distinguished Teaching Scholar, Colorado State University
Dr Margaritka Karaivanova, Professor of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical University Sofia
Dr Michael Biggs, Associate Professor of Sociology, University of Oxford
Dr Michael Johnston, School of Education, Victoria University of Wellington
Dr Michelle Finley, Couple and Family Therapy, Antioch University
Dr Miguel Ángel Quintana-Paz, Professor of Philosophy, Universidad Europea Miguel de Cervantes
Dr Nando Pelusi, Psychologist, NYC
Dr Neil Thin, School of Social and Political Science, The University of Edinburgh
Dr Neven Sesardic, Philosopher
Dr Nevin Climenhaga, Research Fellow in Philosophy, Australian Catholic University
Dr Nicola De Jager
Dr Nikos Sotirakopoulos, Lectuer in Sociology and Criminology, York St John University
Dr Paul Brown, Researcher, Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Dr Paul Budney
Dr Paul Georgia, Economics
Dr Paul Grayson

Dr Paul Morrissey, President Campion College Australia
Dr Peter Christoph Lobner
Dr Peter Kovac

Dr Peter Langfelder, Semel Neuroscience Institute, University of California, Los Angeles
Dr Peter Tangney
Dr Phillip Parker, School of Science, Australian Catholic University
Dr Prakash Shah, Reader in Culture and Law Department of Law, Queen Mary, University of London
Dr Punit Shah, Department of Psychology, University of Bath
Dr Rex Jung, Department of Neurosurgery, University of New Mexico
Dr Richard Heffernan, Reader in Government, Open University

Dr Rick Mehta, Former Professor of Psychology, Acadia University
Dr Robert Sloan Lee
Dr Robyn Sainsbury MBBS
Dr Rosalind Arden, Research Associate, Centre for Philosophy of Natural and Social Science, London School of Economics
Dr Russell Blackford, School of Humanities and Social Science, University of Newcastle
Dr Robert Gates, MB BS FRACP
Dr Ross Cowan, MA PhD
Dr Sandra Kostner, Dr, Lecturer in Migration Studies, University of Education Schwaebisch Gmuend

Dr S. Pilar
Dr Sara Boutall
Dr Sebastian Herbstreuth
Dr Seena Abraham
Dr Seye Abimbola, School of Public Health, The University of Sydney
Dr Simon Knight

Dr Spencer Case, International Research Fellow in Philosophy, Wuhan University
Dr Stefano Di Domenico, Postdoctoral Fellow, Institute for Positive Psychology and Education, Australian Catholic University

Dr Stephen Basdeo
Dr Steven Bailey
Dr Stephen Byrne
Dr Stephen Gruneberg, Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment, The University of Westminster
Dr Stephen Illingworth

Dr Sun Cho, Neuroscience
Dr Tania Reynolds, Postdoctoral Fellow, Kinsey Institute, Indiana University Bloomington

Dr Terrance Tomkow
Dr Terry Stygall, University of the West of England (retired)
Dr Tim Williams
Dr Timothy L. Francis, Naval History & Heritage Command
Dr Tobias Hägerland, Lecturer, Department of Literature, History of Ideas and Religion, University of Gothenburg

Dr Tom Schafer, Department of Geosciences, Fort Hays State University
Dr Vera Anderson, Licensed Psychologist

Dr Vlastimil Vohánka, Department of Philosophy and Patrology, Palacký University Olomouc
Dr Wendelin Reich, Docent in Social Psychology, Uppsala University
Dr Wendy James
Dr Roberto Colom, Department of Psychology, Autonomous University of Madrid
Duane Miller, Associate Professor, Protestant Faculty of Theology, The University of Madrid
Dwight Branvold, PhD

Eckhard Kemmann, Professor, Rutgers University, Rutgers Medical School (retired)
Edouard Ivanov, PhD Candidate in Physics, Sorbonne Université

Ed Rybicki, Professor in Microbiology
Edmund Stewart, Assistant Professor in Ancient Greek History, University of Nottingham
Edward Dutton, Adjunct Professor of the Anthropology of Religion and Finnish Culture, University of Oulu, Finland
Edward Miller, Emeritus Professor of Economics and Finance, University of New Orleans
Edward Morrison, Senior Lecturer in Psychology, University of Portsmouth
Ella Gale, PhD, Postdoctoral Researcher at the University of Bristol
Elena Feder, PhD

Emeritus Professor Anthony Jorm, School of Population Health, University of Melbourne
Emeritus Professor Asoka Ekanayaka, University of Peradeniya Sri Lanka
Eric Walls, Adjunct History Professor, East Carolina University
Errin Anderson, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa
Eugene Walters, Emeritus Professor, University of Tasmania

Félix Bernardo, Professor of Mathematics at Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte
Felix Ovejero, Professor of Philosophy, University of Barcelona
Femke Grops, PhD Candidate, Department of the Archaeology, University of Mainz (Germany)

Fernando Peregrin Gutierrez, PhD Physics
Ferrel Christensen, Professor Emeritus, University of Alberta
Filipe Nobre Faria, Research Fellow in Political Philosophy and Ethics, Nova University of Lisbon
Frances Widdowson, Associate Professor, Department of Economics, Justice, and Policy Studies, Mount Royal University
Francesco Billari, Professor of Demography, Bocconi University
Francis Lankester, PhD
Francis Sansbury, PhD (Cantab)
Francisco Nieto Escámez, PhD

François Grin, Professor, FTI, University of Geneva
Frank Harrison, Josiah Meigs Distinguished Professor, Emeritus, Department of Philosophy, University of Georgia
Frans Van eeden, PhD Researcher, Ghent University, Belgium
Garrett Hope, DMA, Instructor of Music, University of Nebraska–Lincoln
Gay Sutherland, Visiting Researcher King’s College London

Geoffrey Marcy, Professor Emeritus, UC Berkeley
Georges Auguste, Electronics Engineer (French) (Ecole Supérieure d’Electricité)
George MacDonald Ross, Visiting Senior Lecturer in Philosophy, University of Leeds

George Valkuchak, USAF NCO Academy Instructor (Ret.) – Military Studies, World Affairs
Germán Hevia Martínez, PhD Candidate, University of Oviedo
Germán Vera Concha, PhD

Giuseppe Guaiana, Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatry, University of Western Ontario
Glenn Peoples, PhD
Gordon Bailey MD FRCP(C), Director, The Bailey Clinic
Gordon Nickel, Director, Centre for Islamic Studies, SAIACS Bangalore
Graham Whittaker, PhD FRSC
Grant Brown, DPhil (Oxon), LLB

Gregory Connor, Professor of Finance, Maynooth University, Ireland
Gregory Mason, Associate Professor of Economics, University of Manitob
Gunilla Lindmark, Professor Emerita International Maternal and Reproductive Health, Uppsala University

Guy Goodwin, Emeritus Professor of Psychiatry, University of Oxford
Hans Peter Dietz, Professor in Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Sydney
Hayo Reinders, Professor of Education, Unitec, New Zealand
Henry-James Meiring, PhD candidate, University of Queensland

Hilve Firek, Professor of Education, Virginia Wesleyan University
Holger Schanz, Professor of Physics, University of Applied Sciences Magdeburg-Stendal, Germany

Hoyt King, Instructor at Wright College, Chicago
Hugh Avey, PhD, Former Dean of School of Sciences, University of Southern Queensland Australia
Hugo Schmidt, PhD
Iain Mansfield, Governor, Bath Spa University
Ian Folkins, PhD
Ian Pace, Senior Lecturer in Music, City, University of London
Ian Tully, PhD
Irene Ogrizek, English Department, Dawson College, Montreal
Isaías Naranjo, English Language Professor, La Laguna University, Spain
J.D. Haltigan, Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto

Jack Marsh, Computer Science, The University of Exeter
James Dalziel, Dean of Education, Morling College and Professor, University of Divinity, Australia
James Day, PhD student, University College London

James D. Miller, Professor of Economics, Smith College
James Elsey, PhD Candidate in Clinical Psychology

James F. Stephens, Digital Humanities
James Frazee, Chair, Department of Psychology, Cosumnes River College

James Guest, MA, Oxon, MBA, Barrister & Solicitor, Supreme Court of Victoria, former Council Member
Monash University
James H. Cox, Professor of English, University of Texas at Austin

James Hannam, PhD
James Moore, Professor of Industrial & Systems Engineering, Civil & Environmental Engineering, and Public Policy; University of Southern California; Los Angeles, CA, United States

James Thompson, former Senior Lecturer in Psychology, University College London
James Ventola, Professor Department English and Philosophy, Massasoit Community College
Jan van de Beek, PhD

Jasmine Straight, PhD student in Philosophy, University of Colorado Boulder
Jason Manning, Associate Professor of Sociology, West Virginia University

Javier Reyes, University of Helsinki
Jeffrey Flier, Distinguished Service Professor, Harvard Univeristy Higginson Professor of Physiology and Medicine, Harvard Medical School
Jeffrey Morris, Assistant Professor, Department of Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham
Jens Olaf Pepke Pedersen, Senior Scientist, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark

Jeremy Harvey, Professor of Chemistry, KU Leuven
Jody C Baumgartner, Distinguished Professor of Political Science, East Carolina University
Joe Phillips, Associate Professor, Yonsei University
Johan Grant, Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Lund University
Johan Braeckman, Professor of Philosophy, Ghent University, Belgium
John Anderson, Honourary Research Associate
John Blanchar, Visiting Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Swarthmore College
John Collins, PhD
John D Bain, Professor Emeritus, Griffith University
John E MacKinnon, Associate Professor of Philosophy, Saint Mary’s University
John Humphreys, Lecturer of Economics, University of Queensland
John Kaneko, Psychologist, PhD student, Stockholm University

John King, Former Lecturer in Pathology, Flinders University, Adelaide
John Lammi, PhD

John Marvin, Chancellor, St Matthew’s University
John Nazelrod, Professor of Government & Public Policy, The University of Baltimore
John Reddick, Emeritus Professor, Department of German, University of Cambridge
John Spadora, Juris Doctor
John Staddon, James B. Duke Professor of Psychology and Professor of Biology, Emeritus, Duke University
John Tooby, Distinguished Professor of Anthropology, Co-Director, Center for Evolutionary Psychology, University of California, Santa Barbara

Jonathan Chinchen, English Language Instructor, Waseda University, Tokyo
Joshua Dacre, Postdoctoral researcher in Neuroscience, University of Edinburgh
Jonathan Haidt, Professor, Business and Society Program, New York University, Stern School of Business

Jonathan Taylor, Professor of Geography and the Environment, California State University
Joshua Katz, Cotsen Professor in the Humanities and Professor of Classics, Princeton University
José Miguel Pereira, Professor, School of Agriculture, University of Lisbon, Portugal
Jose Salcedo, Professor of Electrical Engineering, University of Porto, Portugal
Joseph Conlon, Professor of Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford

Joseph H. Manson, Professor of Anthropology, UCLA
Joseph Platnauer, PhD
Joseph Yi, Associate Professor of Political Science, Hanyang University (Seoul, Korea)
Joshua Dunn, Professor of Political Science, University of Colorado
Joshua Klugman, Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, Temple University
Jorge Mojarro, Associate Professorial Lecturer II, Department of Literature, University of Santo Tomas, Manila

Juan Carlos Hernandez-Barrios, PhD
Julian Friedland, Assistant Professor of Ethics, Trinity Business School, Trinity College Dublin
Justin Kalef, Teaching Professor, Department of Philosophy, Rutgers University
Juta Kawalerowicz, Postdoctoral Fellow at the Department of Human Geography, Stockholm University
Karl Brown, Course Coordinator, School of Business, University of Notre Dame Australia
Karl Daggfeldt, Senior Lecturer , Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences
Katrine Wallis, Teaching fellow, University of Warwick

Kathleen Lowrey, Associate Professor of Anthropology, University of Alberta
Keith Eldershaw, Postgraduate scholar, Edith Cowan University

Keith E. Stanovich, Emeritus Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Toronto
Keith McKeown, Psychology Department, Arden University

Kenneth Boyce, Assistant Professor of Philosophy, University of Missouri
Kevin Dowd, Professor, Durham University
Kimberly Hollar, Doctor of Pharmacy
Kirsty Miller, PhD Psychology
Koen Jansen, PhD

Larry Wayte, J.D., Ph.D, Senior Instructor, University of Oregon
Laurence Copeland, Emeritus Professor of Finance and Economics, Cardiff Business School
Lee Benham, Professor Emeritus Economics, Washington University, St. Louis

Lee Jussim, Distinguished Professor, Rutgers Psychology
Leif Allmendinger, Emeritus Professor of Visual Communication, Northern Illinois University

Leonardo Orlando, PhD Candidate in Political Science at Sciences of Paris
Lianne Gabe, M.A., Director of Institutional Studies, Stockton University, (retired)
Lilian Carvalho, Professor of Marketing, University of Brasilia
Lloyd Reinhardt, Senior Lecturer, The University of Sydney
Lori Lawson, Senior Lecturer

Lorne Carmichael, Emeritus Professor of Economics, Queen’s University
Lyell Asher, Department of English, Lewis and Clark College
Maarten Boudry, Postdoctoral Researcher
Malte Griebenow, PhD Candidate, Universität Hamburg
Manfredi La Manna, Reader in Economics, University of St Andrews, Scotland

Mariah Hoard, The University of Chicago, Georgetown School of Foreign Service
Mark Koyama, Associate Professor of Economics, George Mason University

Mark Grabowski, Associate Professor of Communications, Adelphi University
Mark Fabian, Lecturer in Economics, Australian National University

Mark Pitts, PhD Economics
Mark Perrino, PhD, Columbia University
Mark Press, Undergraduate Chair, Department of Psychology, Touro College
Mark Smith, Professor of Social Work, University of Dundee, Scotland
Mark Walland, Honorary Senior Lecturer, University of Melbourne
Mark van Loosdrecht, Professor, Delft University of Technology

Martin Adams, Fellow Emeritus (Music), Trinity College Dublin
Martin Cox, Director, John Locke Institute
Martin Neil, Professor of Statistics and Computer Science, Queen Mary, University of London

Martin Wynne, Bodleian Libraries, University of Oxford
Mary Frances Williams, PhD
Mat Langford, Assistant Professor of Mathematics, University of Tennessee Knoxville

Matthew Costello, Assistant Professor of Psychology, University of Hartford
Matt McGue, Regents Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota
Matt Strauss, Assistant Clinical Professor, McMaster University
Matthew Kahn, Lecturer, Univerity of Luxembourg
Matthias E. Storme, Professor of Law, Law School Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium
Matthias Haslberger, DPhil Student in Social Policy, Nuffield College and University of Oxford
Matthew Jacobson, PhD Candidate, The University of Reading
Marc Janssens, Master of Statistics – Biostatistics, Master of Mathematics
Mark Boughan, Past-President, Emmanuel College, Kitchener, Ontario, Canada
Mark McIntire, Professor of Philosophy, Santa Barbara City College (retired)
Max Hennig, PhD Candidate in Psychology, University of Tübungen
Maxime Vandenberghe, Scientific researcher (WP), Ghent University

Maximilian Werner, Associate Professor of Writing and Rhetoric Studies
Melanie Douglass, Lecturer (Psychobiology and Evolutionary Psychology)
Melissa M. Murray, Senior Lecturer in Music Theory, School of the Arts Southern Methodist University

Michael Anderson, PhD
Michael Bailey, Professor, Northwestern University
Michael Bennett, PhD Candidate, Australian National University
Michael Bennett, Professor, Department of Business Management, Curry College
Michael Blackburn, Senior Lecturer, School of English, University of Lincoln (retired)

Michael Huemer, Professor, Department of Philosophy, University of Colorado
Michael Levin, MC Psychiatrist
Michael Leznik, PhD
Michael Mills, Associate Professor of Psychology, Loyola Marymount University
Michael Minchin, PhD
Michael Palkowski, PhD Candidate in Hospitality, Edinburgh Napier University
Michael Pirson, Professor and Director Gabelli School of Business, Fordham University

Michael Sugrue, Professor of History, Ave Maria University
Michael Tooley, Emeritus Professor, Department of Philosophy, University of Colorado
Michail Theodosiadis, PhD Candidate, Goldsmiths University of London

Michael Trigoboff, PhD, Instructor, Portland Community College
Michael Withey, PhD

Michael Woodley, Lifetime Fellow, Center Leo Apostel for Interdisciplinary Studies, Vrije Universiteit Brussel
Michail Theodosiadis, PhD
Mike McNulty, MA, MLIS, College Instructor and Academic Librarian

Montana Morris, Medical Student, Yale University School of Medicine
Morris Odell, Adjunct Associate Professor of Forensic Medicine, Monash University
Nadim Kobeissi, Professor of Applied Cryptography
Nan de Graaf, Professor
Nancy Bryson, Visiting Associate Professor of Chemistry, Berry College (retired)

Nathan Cofnas, Philosophy DPhil candidate, University of Oxford
Nathan Coombs, Lecturer in Economic Sociology, Edinburgh University
Nathan Gillespie, Associate Professor, Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavior Genetics, Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University
Narciso Benítez, PhD

Neil Gilbert, Chernin Professor of Social Welfare
Neil Kressel, Professor of Psychology, William Paterson University

Niall Ferguson, Milbank Family Senior Fellow, Hoover Institution
Nicholas Dranias, Adjunct Instructor, Business Law & Ethics, College of Business, Grand Canyon University
Nicholas Thorne, PhD

Nicholas Wickham, Clinical Associate Professor
Nick Martin, Senior Scientist, Genetic Epidemiology Unit, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute
Nick Moberly, Senior Lecturer, University of Exeter

Nigel Biggar, Regius Professor of Moral and Pastoral Theology, University of Oxford
Nils de Mol van Otterloo, PhD Candidate in Social Work
Noel Thompson, PhD Candidate in Materials Science, University of Cambridge
Norman Fenton, Professor of Computing
Norman Siebrasse, Professor of Law, University of New Brunswick, Canada
Olof Klintholm (Tobiasson), Master of Arts (St Edmund’s College, Cambridge)

Olivier Massin, Professor of Philosophy, University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland
Pablo De Lora, Professor of Legal Philosophy, School of Law, Autonomous University of Madrid 

Paolo S. D’Aquila, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Università di Sassari, Italy
Paul Irwing, Professor of Organisational Psychology, Alliance Manchester Business School, The University of Manchester
Paul Lillrank, Professor, Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, School of Science, Aalto University, Finland
Paul Linthorst, Adjunct Professor NYU
Paul Norwood, Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine, University of California
Pawel Gburzynski, Professor Emeritus, Computing Science, University of Alberta
Peggy Sastre, PhD
Pete Ferderer, Professor of Economics, Macalester College
Peter Baehr, Research Professor in Social Theory

Peter Boghossian, Assistant Professor of Philosophy, Portland State University
Peter Boone, Chairman, Effective Intervention Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics
Peter Cox, BA MA, Lecturer in Architecture
Peter Furia, Associate Professor, Global Studies and Politics, University of Virginia
Peter Murphy, Adjunct Professor of Humanities and Social Sciences, La Trobe University
Petr Zizler, PhD

Per Arvidsson, MD PhD
Phil Hammond, Professor of Media & Communications, LSBU
Philippe Faes, Doctor of Science in Engineering
Philippe Lemoine, PhD Candidate in Philosophy, Cornell University
Piers Benn, Adjunct Professor (Philosophical Ethics) Fordham University London Centre

Professor Abraham Wyner, Department of Statistics, Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania
Professor Andrew Adams

Professor Andrew Tettenborn, Commercial Law
Professor Barry Spurr

Professor Colin Wight, Department of Government and International Relations, University of Sydney
Professor Craig DeLancey, Department of Philosophy, State University of New York at Oswego
Professor Daniel Drucker,  Professor of Medicine, Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto
Professor David B. Collum, Professor of Chemistry, Cornell University
Professor David Paton, Chair of Industrial Economics, Nottingham University Business School
Professor Dean Rickles
Professor Emeritus Richard Haier

Professor Eric P. Kaufmann, Department of Politics, Birkbeck College, University of London, UK
Professor Félix Bernardo, Mathematics
Professor Georgia Martin
Professor Heiner Rindermann, Chemnitz University of Technology, Germany
Professor James Tooley, School of Education, University of Newcastle upon Tyne
Professor Jonathan Anomaly, Philosophy
Professor Jonathan Jones, Department of Physics and Brasenose College, University of Oxford
Professor Keith White-Hunt, University of Leeds

Professor Klaus Ostermann, Computer Science, University of Tübingen
Professor Manuel Hernández, Department of Philosophy, University of Murcia, Spain
Professor Matthew J. Goodwin, Politics and International Relations, Rutherford College
Professor Paul Allen
Professor Emeritus Richard Sparks
Professor Roger Lirely

Professor Stephen Pink, Lancaster UniversityProfessor Tony Cassidy, School of Psychology, Ulster University
Radosław Pietkun, PhD

Rafael Rodriguez, Associate Professor, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
Rainer Boegle, PhD

Ralph Faris, Professor of Sociology
Randall Heather, PhD, St. Edmund’s College

Randall Roth, Professor Emeritus, University of Hawaii School of Law
Ravi Kudesia, Assistant Professor of Human Resource Management, Temple University
Raymond Yeow, BA, MBBS, MBA (Exec), FIAA
Reyer Sjamaar, Professor of Mathematics, Cornell University
Richard Bailey, Assistant Professor of History, Queen’s University (retired)

Richard Katz, Associate Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience (retired)
Richard Hench, Teacher Emeritus of Linguistics, Rhetoric, and Literary Interpretation
Richard Inglis, Doctoral Student, Florida State University
Richard Mitchell, Professor of Computing, University of Brighton, UK (retired)

Richard Volkman, Professor of Philosophy, Southern Connecticut State University
Robert-Jan Kooman, Lecturer in Mathematics, University of Leiden

Rob Keeley, Senior Lecturer, Music, King’s College London (retired)
Rob Sica, Assistant Professor, Colorado State University Libraries

Robert Anderson, Faculty, Department of Psychology, University of Maryland
Robert Benson, Instructor of Geology University of South Carolina Aiken (retired)

Robert Bremel, Emeritus Professor, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Robert Henderson, PhD Student, University of Cambridge

Robert King PhD, Lecturer in Applied Psychology, University College Cork
Robert Kok, Emeritus Professor of Bioresource Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
Robert P. George, McCormick Professor of Jurisprudence, Princeton University
Robert Seddon, Honorary Fellow, Durham University

Robert Stanley, Professor Emeritus, Art and Humanities
Rodney Warwick, PhD

Rohan Loveland, DPhil, Visiting Professor, Computer Science Dept., Whitman College
Rohit Parikh, Distinguished Professor, CUNY
Ron Cline, Professor, Kettering University, (retired)
Ronan Murray, Clinical Associate Professor
Rosa Motta, Lecturer of Classical Studies, Christopher Newport University
Rupert Norman, Postdoctoral Research Associate
Ruth Mieschbuehler, PhD, Senior Lecturer, Institute of Education, University of Derby
Russell T. Warne, Associate Professor of Psychology, Utah Valley University

Sadanand Dhume, AEI Scholar, American Enterprise Institute
Sam Lehman-Wilzig, Professor & former Chair, School of Communication (Bar-Ilan University); former Chair of the Israel Political Science Association
Sander Beckers, Postdoctoral Researcher, Department of Philosophy, Utrecht University
Sandro-Angelo de Thomasis, PhD candidate, Italian Language and Literature, Yale University
São Luís Castro, Professor of Psychology at University of Porto
Sarah Tennant, Postdoctoral Research Fellow, University of Edinburgh, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine
Sarnyai Zoltan, Lady Davis Visting Professor, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology
Saul Jacka, Professor of Statistics, University of Warwick

Scott Kim, Adjunct Professor of Psychiatry, University of Michigan
Scott K. Hansen, Zuckerberg Institute for Water Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
Sean Mennim, PhD Candidate, United Kingdom
Sean Rife, Assistant Professor of Psychology, Murray State University

Sergei Tabachnikov, Professor of Mathematics, Pennsylvania State University
Seth Benjamin, PhD
Shalagh McCarthy, M.A. Tutor, Western Sydney University

Simon B. Chen, Resident Physician, Stanford Hospital and Clinics
Simon Newman, Senior Lecturer, University of Westminster
Simon Platt, Senior Research Associate in Nuclear Instrumentation, Lancaster University
Simon van Rysewyk, Adjunct Researcher, Department of Philosophy and Gender Studies, University of Tasmania

Solomon Stavrov, Senior Researcher, Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University
Stan Middlebrooks, Professor Emeritus and Dept. Chair, Electronic Engineering and Technology Management, Herzing University
Steije Hofhuis, PhD Candidate
Stephan Poelmans, Assistant Professor

Stephen B Perrott, Professor of Psychology, Mount St Vincent University
Stephen Blackwood, President Ralston College
Stephen Dunning, Associate Professor of English, Trinity Western University

Stephen Quilley, Associate Professor School of Environment Resources & Sustainability, University of Waterloo
Stephanie Greene, PhD candidate, Earth and Planetary Sciences, Macquarie University
Stephen Bujno, PhD Candidate, Global Center for Advanced Studies
Stephen Kershnar, Distinguished Teaching Professor, State University of New York at Fredonia
Stephen Pierson, Professor of English, Onondaga Community College, Syracuse New York
Steven Ambler, Professor, Economics, Université du Québec à Montréal
Steven Bauer, Emeritus Professor, Department of English, Miami University
Steven Masssey, Professor of Bioinformatics, University of Puerto Rico

Steven Pinker, Johnstone Family Professor of Psychology, Harvard University
Stuart Page, Pro Vice Chancellor, York St John University
Stuart Reges, Principal Lecturer, University of Washington
Sumantra Maitra, Doctoral Researcher, University of Nottingham

Susan Brown, Senior Research Associate, Department of Linguistics, Computer Science Department, University of Colorado
Tammy Castleforte, Rare Disease Clinical Science Specialist
Tak Wing Chan, Professor of Quantitative Social Science, University College London
Terry Newman, MA Sociology, Concordia University, Montreal
Teun Voeten, PhD
Theo Dounas, Senior Lecturer, Robert Gordon University
Thomas Bouchard, Emeritus Professor of Psychology, University of Minnesota

Thomas Cushman, Deffenbaugh de Hoyos Carlson Professor in the Social Sciences
Wellesley College
Thomas Hollett, Professor of English Language, Centro de Lenguas, University of Almería

Thomas Joseph Lynch, Adjunct Professor Business Law, Northwest Mississippi Community College
Thomas Koenig, PhD
Thomas Marmefelt, Associate Professor of Economics, University of Södertörn
Thomas Raleigh, Assistant Professor of Philosophy, United Arab Emirates University (UAEU)

Tim Olds, Professor of Behavioural Epidemiology, University of South Australia
Timothy Bates, Professor of Individual Differences in Psychology, University of Edinburgh
Trevor Williams, Professor Emeritus, University of Victoria, BC, Canada
Tobias Otterbring, Associate Professor, Aarhus University

Todd K. Shackelford, Distinguished Professor of Psychology, Oakland University
Torben Spaak, Professor of Jurisprudence & Vice-Dean for Education, Stockholm University
Torsten Akesson, Professor of Particle Physics, Lund University
Trevor Stammers, Director, Centre for Bioethics and Emerging Technologies, St Mary’s University
Tripurdaman Singh, Post-Doctoral Fellow, Indian Council of Historical Research
Tudor Ciobanu, PhD Candidate in Physics, Stony Brook University

Ulla Westin, Associate Professor, Medical Science
Vasilije Perovic, PhD Student, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich
Velimir Dedic, Professor of Information Systems, Zemun, Serbia 

Victor Davis Hanson, Martin and Illie Anderson Senior Fellow in Classics and Military History
The Hoover Institution, Stanford University
Vincent Debierre, MPIK Heidelberg
W. Douglas McMillin, Professor Emeritus
Walther Traberg-Christensen, PhD Candidate

William Grim, Vice-President, Humanities Education & Research Association
William Vandenberghe, Assistant professor, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas

Wojciech Pisula, Prof of psychology, Institute of Psychology, Polish Academy of Sciences
Yi-Zen Chu, Associate Professor, Department of Physics, National Central University, Taiwan
Yule Heibel, PhD
Zdenek Vajdak, DPhil